Peasants, Lords, and Legislators in the French Revolution
Author: John Markoff
Publisher: Penn State University Press
One of the most important results of the French Revolution was the destruction of the old feudal order, which for centuries had kept the common people of the countryside subject to the lords. In this book, John Markoff addresses the ways in which insurrectionary peasants and revolutionary legislators joined in bringing &"the time of the lords&" to an end and how, in that ending, seigneurial rights came to be central to the very sense of the Revolution. He traces the interaction of peasants and legislators, showing how they confronted, challenged, and implicitly negotiated with one another during the course of events. Contrary to many historians who see the source of revolutionary change in elite culture, Markoff argues that peasant insurrection was a crucial element of the transformation of France. Of particular importance to the study is Markoff's analysis of the unique cahiers de dol&éances, the lists of grievances drawn up in 1789 by rural communities, urban notables, and nobles alike. These documents are invaluable for understanding the Revolution, but until the pioneering work of Markoff and Gilbert Shapiro, they had not been studied systematically at the national level. In addition to an unprecedented quantitative analysis of the cahiers, Markoff traces the ebb and flow of peasant insurrection across half a decade of revolutionary turbulence. He also offers qualitative analysis through his use of the records of the legislative debates as well as the memoirs and journals of the legislators. The Abolition of Feudalism breaks new ground in charting patterns of grievance and revolt in one of the most important social and political upheavals in history.
This book, first published in 1983, examines in depth the nature and sources of class radicalism in France and Britain and takes issue with some of the major theories of class consciousness and class action. Drawing on data both from detailed case studies and from wider national surveys, it shows that the conflict of class interests within capitalist societies can lead to sharply diverging attitudes to class inequality. It argues that the explanation of such differences cannot be found in some 'general' law of the evolution of social conflict in capitalist society. It must be sought in the profound institutional differences that exist between the two societies. In particular the study argues for a reassessment of the importance of the experience of war and of the way in which the business and political elite handled the social crises generated by war, in accounting for the long-term structural divergence of capitalist societies.
Napoleonic France and the End of the Holy Roman Empire, 1806
Author: A. Forrest,P. Wilson
This volume's juxtaposition of the empires of Germany and France in 1806, at the dissolution of The Holy Roman Empire, allows a comparison of their transition towards modernity, explored through the themes of Empire, monarchy, political cultures, feudalism, war and military institutions, nationalism and identity, and everyday experience.
Stories of pageantry associated with kings, queens, and the upper class have long captivated readers of all ages. The reality behind how these entities have operated within set governmental systems has not always been as glamorous as these tales, but it retains an allure of its own nonetheless. This book provides a firm grounding in the historic political, social, and economic implications of rule by monarchy, including the prevalence of the feudal system in medieval Europe. Modern monarchies and the role of the aristocracy in every age are also detailed.
The Sicilian Mafia, or Cosa Nostra, is one of the most intriguing criminal phenomena in the world. It is an unparalleled organised criminal grouping that over almost two centuries has been able not only to successfully permeate licit and illicit economy, politics and civil society, but also to influence and exercise authoritative power over both the underworld and the upper-world. This criminal phenomenon has been a captivating conundrum for scholars of different disciplines who have tried to explain with various paradigms the reasons behind the emergence and consolidation of the mafia. Challenging the Mafia Mystique provides an analysis of the changes the Sicilian mafia has undergone, from legitimisation to denunciation. Rino Coluccello highlights how, from the very emergence of the organised criminal groups in Sicily, a culture existed that was protective and tolerant of the mafia. He argues that the various conceptualisations of the mafia that dominated the public and scientific debate in the nineteenth and more than half of the twentieth century created a mystique, which legitimised the mafia and contributed to their success. This book will be of great interest to scholars and students of organised crime, Italian politics and Italian literature.
Marc Bloch said that his goal in writing Feudal Society was to go beyond the technical study a medievalist would typically write and ‘dismantle a social structure.’ In this outstanding and monumental work, which has introduced generations of students and historians to the feudal period, Bloch treats feudalism as living, breathing force in Western Europe from the ninth to the thirteenth century. At its heart lies a magisterial account of relations of lord and vassal, and the origins of the nature of the fief, brought to life through compelling accounts of the nobility, knighthood and chivalry, family relations, political and legal institutions, and the church. For Bloch history was a process of constant movement and evolution and he describes throughout the slow process by which feudal societies turned into what would become nation states. A tour de force of historical writing, Feudal Society is essential reading for anyone interested in both Western Europe’s past and present. With a new foreword by Geoffrey Koziol
This book contains a collection of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Tenth Biennial Modern Studies in Property Law Conference held at the University of Liverpool in April 2014. It is the eighth volume to be published under the name of the Conference. The Conference and its published proceedings have become an established forum for property lawyers from around the world to showcase current research in the discipline. This collection reflects the diversity and contemporary relevance of modern research in property law. Incorporating a keynote address by Sir John Mummery, retired Lord Justice of Appeal, on 'Property in the Information Age', a number of chapters consider the contribution of property law to issues central to the human condition; the home, health and death. Other papers illustrate an enduring need to question and explore fundamental concepts of the subject as well as to consider the challenges of reforming the law. Collectively the chapters demonstrate the vibrancy and importance of property law in dealing with modern concerns across the common law world.
This Book Covers The History Of Japan From The Very Beginning To 2002 A.D. During 19Th Century Japan Became The Most Advanced And Powerful Nation Of Asia And Raised The Slogan, Asia For Asians . Japan Tried To Extend Her Empire To Other Places Of Asia Like China, Korea, Etc. This Annoyed Western Powers And Usa, And Therefore, They Became The Worst Enemies Of Japan. In The Second World War, Japan Fought Against Britain, France And Usa In Alliance With Germany And Italy But Did Not Attack Ussr. After The Defeat Of Italy And Germany, Usa Forced Japan To Surrender By Using Its Atomic Power And In The Wake Of An Attack Of Russia On Japan. In Spite Of The Defeat, Japan Made Astonishing Progress And Has Become One Of The Most Advanced And The Richest Countries Of The World. Japan Has Made Wonderful Progress By Peaceful Means And Hardwork; The Study Of Progress Of Japan Is, Therefore, Useful For Indian Students And Indian People.It Is Hoped That The Book Will Prove Useful To Students As Well As To The Common Readers.
This book, first published in 1990, examines Italy’s economic history from its Unification in 1850 to the end of the First World War. Particular attention is paid to the extent to which Italy exhibits the features of Kaznets’s model of ‘modern economic growth’. An Economic History of Liberal Italy begins with a quantitative assessment of Italy’s long-term growth in this period. All of the main relevant variables – including production, consumption, investment, foreign trade, government spending, and welfare – are discussed. The book proceeds through a chronological account of the developments of the economy during this period, and concludes with a critical survey of the relevant historiography. Throughout the book emphasis is given to structural changes, to developments in the main industries, to the relations between different sectors of the economy, and to economic policies. This book is ideal for those studying economics of Italian history.
The Italian-American mafia has its roots in a mysterious and powerful criminal network in Sicily. While the mythology of the mafia has been widely celebrated in American culture, the true origins of its rituals, laws, and methods have never actually been revealed. John Dickie uses startling new research to expose the secrets of the Sicilian mafia, providing a fascinating account that is more violent, frightening, and darkly comic than anything conceived in popular movies and novels. How did the Sicilian mafia begin? How did it achieve its powerful grip in Italy and America? How does it operate today? From the mafia's origins in the 1860s to its current tense relationship with the Berlusconi government, Cosa Nostra takes us to the inner sanctum where few have dared to go before. This is an important work of history and a revelation for anyone who ever wondered what it means to be "made" in the mob.
The Oxford Handbook of the French Revolution brings together a sweeping range of expert and innovative contributions to offer engaging and thought-provoking insights into the history and historiography of this epochal event. Each chapter presents the foremost summations of academic thinking on key topics, along with stimulating and provocative interpretations and suggestions for future research directions. Placing core dimensions of the history of the French Revolution in their transnational and global contexts, the contributors demonstrate that revolutionary times demand close analysis of sometimes tiny groups of key political actors - whether the king and his ministers or the besieged leaders of the Jacobin republic - and attention to the deeply local politics of both rural and urban populations. Identities of class, gender and ethnicity are interrogated, but so too are conceptions and practices linked to citizenship, community, order, security, and freedom: each in their way just as central to revolutionary experiences, and equally amenable to critical analysis and reflection. This volume covers the structural and political contexts that build up to give new views on the classic question of the 'origins of revolution'; the different dimensions of personal and social experience that illuminate the political moment of 1789 itself; the goals and dilemmas of the period of constitutional monarchy; the processes of destabilisation and ongoing conflict that ended that experiment; the key issues surrounding the emergence and experience of 'terror'; and the short- and long-term legacies, for both good and ill, of the revolutionary trauma - for France, and for global politics.
Is Italy il bel paese—the beautiful country—where tourists spend their vacations looking for art, history, and scenery? Or is it a land whose beauty has been cursed by humanity’s greed and nature’s cruelty? The answer is largely a matter of narrative and the narrator’s vision of Italy. The fifteen essays in Nature and History in Modern Italy investigate that nation’s long experience in managing domesticated rather than wild natures and offer insight into these conflicting visions. Italians shaped their land in the most literal sense, producing the landscape, sculpting its heritage, embedding memory in nature, and rendering the two different visions inseparable. The interplay of Italy’s rich human history and its dramatic natural diversity is a subject with broad appeal to a wide range of readers.
Students of French history and lovers of rousing tales alike will find in this hard-to-find work an alternative look at the French Revolution from one of the great anarchist thinkers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.Communist advocate PETER ALEXEYEVICH KROPOTKIN (1842-1921) was deemed "perfect" by Oscar Wilde, who described Kropotkin as a man with "a soul of that beautiful white Christ which seems coming out of Russia." Here, he takes the first serious look at the economic side of the popular Gallic uprising, exploring: the spirit of the revolt the declaration of the rights of man the fears of the middle classes financial difficulties of the Revolution feudal legislation in 1790 social demands and arbitrary taxation the problems with paper money schemes for the socialization of the means of subsistence and exchange and much more.Originally published in two small volumes, this replica edition combines the authorized 1927 American publication into one book that may change how modern readers think about the French Revolution.
The Economics of Agrarian Change Under Population Pressure
Author: Ester Boserup
Publisher: Psychology Press
Category: Business & Economics
Investigating the process of agrarian change, this book analyzes costs and productivity under the main systems of primitive agriculture. The conclusion is that technical, economic and social changes are unlikely to take place within primitive agriculture unless the rural community concerned is exposed to the pressure of population growth: a conclusion that is in sharp contrast to generally accepted ideas. The themes in the book are central to the discussion of the problems of population explosion and the world's undernourished peoples.