A Revolution Down on the Farm

The Transformation of American Agriculture since 1929

Author: Paul Conkin

Publisher: University Press of Kentucky

ISBN: 0813173159

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 2315

At a time when food is becoming increasingly scarce in many parts of the world and food prices are skyrocketing, no industry is more important than agriculture. Humans have been farming for thousands of years, and yet agriculture has undergone more fundamental changes in the past 80 years than in the previous several centuries. In 1900, 30 million American farmers tilled the soil or tended livestock; today there are fewer than 4.5 million farmers who feed a population four times larger than it was at the beginning of the century. Fifty years ago, the planet could not have sustained a population of 6.5 billion; now, commercial and industrial agriculture ensure that millions will not die from starvation. Farmers are able to feed an exponentially growing planet because the greatest industrial revolution in history has occurred in agriculture since 1929, with U.S. farmers leading the way. Productivity on American farms has increased tenfold, even as most small farmers and tenants have been forced to find other work. Today, only 300,000 farms produce approximately ninety percent of the total output, and overproduction, largely subsidized by government programs and policies, has become the hallmark of modern agriculture. A Revolution Down on the Farm: The Transformation of American Agriculture since 1929 charts the profound changes in farming that have occurred during author Paul K. Conkin’s lifetime. His personal experiences growing up on a small Tennessee farm complement compelling statistical data as he explores America’s vast agricultural transformation and considers its social, political, and economic consequences. He examines the history of American agriculture, showing how New Deal innovations evolved into convoluted commodity programs following World War II. Conkin assesses the skills, new technologies, and government policies that helped transform farming in America and suggests how new legislation might affect farming in decades to come. Although the increased production and mechanization of farming has been an economic success story for Americans, the costs are becoming increasingly apparent. Small farmers are put out of business when they cannot compete with giant, non-diversified corporate farms. Caged chickens and hogs in factory-like facilities or confined dairy cattle require massive amounts of chemicals and hormones ultimately ingested by consumers. Fertilizers, new organic chemicals, manure disposal, and genetically modified seeds have introduced environmental problems that are still being discovered. A Revolution Down on the Farm concludes with an evaluation of farming in the twenty-first century and a distinctive meditation on alternatives to our present large scale, mechanized, subsidized, and fossil fuel and chemically dependent system.

Pillars of the Republic

Common Schools and American Society, 1780-1860

Author: Carl Kaestle

Publisher: Hill and Wang

ISBN: 142993171X

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 3440

Pillars of the Republic is a pioneering study of common-school development in the years before the Civil War. Public acceptance of state school systems, Kaestle argues, was encouraged by the people's commitment to republican government, by their trust in Protestant values, and by the development of capitalism. The author also examines the opposition to the Founding Fathers' educational ideas and shows what effects these had on our school system.

Adult education in the American experience

from the colonial period to the present

Author: Harold W. Stubblefield,Patrick Keane

Publisher: Jossey-Bass

ISBN: N.A

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 397

View: 4151

"Stubblefield and Keane have brought a high degree of organization and coherence to the very complex history of adult education in the United States. No one who is serious about the study of adult learning can afford to be without this thoroughly researched volume." --David W. Stewart, director of program development, the Center for Adult Learning and Educational Credentials, American Council on Education From the earliest contributions of Native Americans in the colonial period to the workforce preparation crisis in the 1980s, this book explores the patterns, themes, and changing ideologies of learning and education in adulthood.

The Origins of Federal Support for Higher Education

George W. Atherton and the Land-Grant College Movement

Author: Roger L. Williams

Publisher: Penn State Press

ISBN: 0271072997

Category: Education

Page: 284

View: 1000

The Origins of Federal Support for Higher Education revises the traditional interpretation of the land-grant college movement, whose institutions were brought into being by the 1862 Morrill Act to provide for "the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes." Rather than being the inevitable consequence of the unfolding dynamic of institutional and socioeconomic forces, Williams argues, it was the active intervention and initiative of a handful of educational leaders that secured the colleges' future—above all, the activities of George W. Atherton. For nearly three decades, Atherton, who was the seventh president of the Pennsylvania State University, worked to secure consistent federal financial support for the colleges, which in their early years received little assistance from the states they were designed to benefit. He also helped to develop the institutions as comprehensive "national" universities grounded in the liberal arts and sciences—a conception that countered the prevailing view of the colleges as mainly agricultural schools. Atherton became the prime mover in the campaign to enact the 1887 Hatch Act, which encouraged the establishment of agricultural experiment stations at land-grant colleges. The act marked the federal government's first effort to provide continuous funding to research units associated with higher education institutions. At the same times, Atherton played a key role in the formation of the first association of such institutions: The Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experiment Stations. It was the Association that provided the critical mass needed to lobby Congress successively and to approach the many opportunities and threats the land-grant colleges faced during the 1885–1906 period. Atherton was also deeply involved in the campaign for the Morrill Act of 1890, which provided long-sought annual appropriations to land-grant colleges for a broad range of academic programs and encouraged steady growth in state support during the 1890s. Roger Williams traces the motives and tactics behind a series of laws that made the federal government irreversibly committed to funding higher education and scientific research and provides rich new insights into the complexities, polarities, and inherent contradictions of the history of the American land-grant movement.

A History of Cornell

Author: Morris Bishop

Publisher: Cornell University Press

ISBN: 0801455375

Category: Education

Page: 680

View: 8588

Cornell University is fortunate to have as its historian a man of Morris Bishop's talents and devotion. As an accurate record and a work of art possessing form and personality, his book at once conveys the unique character of the early university—reflected in its vigorous founder, its first scholarly president, a brilliant and eccentric faculty, the hardy student body, and, sometimes unfortunately, its early architecture—and establishes Cornell's wider significance as a case history in the development of higher education. Cornell began in rebellion against the obscurantism of college education a century ago. Its record, claims the author, makes a social and cultural history of modern America. This story will undoubtedly entrance Cornellians; it will also charm a wider public. Dr. Allan Nevins, historian, wrote: "I anticipated that this book would meet the sternest tests of scholarship, insight, and literary finish. I find that it not only does this, but that it has other high merits. It shows grasp of ideas and forces. It is graphic in its presentation of character and idiosyncrasy. It lights up its story by a delightful play of humor, felicitously expressed. Its emphasis on fundamentals, without pomposity or platitude, is refreshing. Perhaps most important of all, it achieves one goal that in the history of a living university is both extremely difficult and extremely valuable: it recreates the changing atmosphere of time and place. It is written, very plainly, by a man who has known and loved Cornell and Ithaca for a long time, who has steeped himself in the traditions and spirit of the institution, and who possesses the enthusiasm and skill to convey his understanding of these intangibles to the reader." The distinct personalities of Ezra Cornell and first president Andrew Dickson White dominate the early chapters. For a vignette of the founder, see Bishop's description of "his" first buildings (Cascadilla, Morrill, McGraw, White, Sibley): "At best," he writes, "they embody the character of Ezra Cornell, grim, gray, sturdy, and economical." To the English historian, James Anthony Froude, Mr. Cornell was "the most surprising and venerable object I have seen in America." The first faculty, chosen by President White, reflected his character: "his idealism, his faith in social emancipation by education, his dislike of dogmatism, confinement, and inherited orthodoxy"; while the "romantic upstate gothic" architecture of such buildings as the President's house (now Andrew D. White Center for the Humanities), Sage Chapel, and Franklin Hall may be said to "portray the taste and Soul of Andrew Dickson White." Other memorable characters are Louis Fuertes, the beloved naturalist; his student, Hugh Troy, who once borrowed Fuertes' rhinoceros-foot wastebasket for illicit if hilarious purposes; the more noteworthy and the more eccentric among the faculty of succeeding presidential eras; and of course Napoleon, the campus dog, whose talent for hailing streetcars brought him home safely—and alone—from the Penn game. The humor in A History of Cornell is at times kindly, at times caustic, and always illuminating.

A History of Weed Science in the United States

Author: Robert L Zimdahl

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 0123815029

Category: Science

Page: 224

View: 4203

It is important that scientists think about and know their history - where they came from, what they have accomplished, and how these may affect the future. Weed scientists, similar to scientists in many technological disciplines, have not sought historical reflection. The technological world asks for results and for progress. Achievement is important not, in general, the road that leads to achievement. What was new yesterday is routine today, and what is described as revolutionary today may be considered antiquated tomorrow. Weed science has been strongly influenced by technology developed by supporting industries, subsequently employed in research and, ultimately, used by farmers and crop growers. The science has focused on results and progress. Scientists have been--and the majority remain--problem solvers whose solutions have evolved as rapidly as have the new weed problems needing solutions. In a more formal sense, weed scientists have been adherents of the instrumental ideology of modern science. That is an analysis of their work, and their orientation reveals the strong emphasis on practical, useful knowledge; on know how. The opposite, and frequently complementary orientation, that has been missing from weed science is an emphasis on contemplative knowledge; that is, knowing why. This book expands on and analyzes how these orientations have affected weed science’s development. The first analytical history of weed science to be written Compares the development of weed science, entomology and plant pathology Identifies the primary founders of weed science and describes their role

A History of American Higher Education

Author: John R. Thelin

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 1421404990

Category: Education

Page: 504

View: 4213

This edition brings the discussion of perennial hot-button issues such as big-time sports programs up to date and addresses such current areas of contention as the changing role of governing boards and the financial challenges posed by the economic downturn.

Understanding Agriculture

New Directions for Education

Author: N.A

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Education

Page: 68

View: 6269

This report presents findings of a study to examine agricultural education at the secondary level and to make recommendations for program improvement. It focuses on the two major elements of agricultural education--agricultural literacy (education about agriculture) and vocational agriculture (education in agriculture). An executive summary sets forth the study's principal findings, conclusions, and recommendations. Chapter 2 discusses educational programs about agriculture for all students at the secondary school level with the goal of producing agriculturally literate citizens. Findings, conclusions, and recommendations are set forth in these areas: education about agriculture, teaching science through agriculture, teacher education and training, model programs, community involvement, and agricultural career exploration programs. Chapter 3 examines vocational agriculture education programs and explores recommendations for change. Specific focuses are program enrollment and availability, program content, supervised occupational experiences, Future Farmers of America, and teacher education. The appendixes review the evolution of agricultural education. (YLB)

Leading the e-Learning Transformation of Higher Education

Meeting the Challenges of Technology and Distance Education

Author: Gary Miller,Meg Benke,Bruce Chaloux,Lawrence C. Ragan,Raymond Schroeder,Wayne Smutz,Karen Swan

Publisher: Stylus Publishing, LLC

ISBN: 1579227988

Category: Education

Page: 270

View: 396

Published in association with The Online Learning Consortium. Written by pioneers in the field of online learning, Leading the e-Learning Transformation of Higher Education is a professional text that offers insights and guidance to the rising generation of leaders in the field of higher education. It explains how to integrate online learning into an institution during a period of rapid social and institutional change. This important volume: • Shares success stories, interviews, cases and insights from a broad range of leadership styles • Reviews how technology is transforming higher education worldwide • Provides an overview of how distance education is organized in a range of institutional settings • Breaks down current leadership challenges in both unit operations and institutional policy This volume launches the new Stylus series that is aimed at the online learning and distance education market. It offers readers the opportunity to benefit from the collective experience and expertise of top leaders in the field. All of the contributors have held leadership roles in national and international distance education organizations. Five of the contributors have been recognized as Sloan Consortium Fellows in 2010 and they have all collaborated with the Institute for Emerging Leaders in Online Learning. These contributors have helped pave the way and now share their insights, advice, and broad vision with the future leaders of the field.

The American College and University

A History

Author: Frederick Rudolph

Publisher: University of Georgia Press

ISBN: 9780820342573

Category: Education

Page: 616

View: 2687

First published in 1962, Frederick Rudolph's groundbreaking study, The American College and University, remains one of the most useful and significant works on the history of higher education in America. Bridging the chasm between educational and social history, this book was one of the first to examine developments in higher education in the context of the social, economic, and political forces that were shaping the nation at large. Surveying higher education from the colonial era through the mid-twentieth century, Rudolph explores a multitude of issues from the financing of institutions and the development of curriculum to the education of women and blacks, the rise of college athletics, and the complexities of student life. In his foreword to this new edition, John Thelin assesses the impact that Rudolph's work has had on higher education studies. The new edition also includes a bibliographic essay by Thelin covering significant works in the field that have appeared since the publication of the first edition. At a time when our educational system as a whole is under intense scrutiny, Rudolph's seminal work offers an important historical perspective on the development of higher education in the United States.

Public Education in the United States

A Study and Interpretation of American Educational History; an Introductory Textbook Dealing with the Larger Problems of Present-day Education in the Light of Their Historical Development

Author: Ellwood Patterson Cubberley

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Education

Page: 517

View: 9389

A Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman Worlds

Author: Beryl Rawson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444390759

Category: Literary Criticism

Page: 664

View: 6084

A Companion to Families in the Greek and Roman Worlds draws from both established and current scholarship to offer a broad overview of the field, engage in contemporary debates, and pose stimulating questions about future development in the study of families. Provides up-to-date research on family structure from archaeology, art, social, cultural, and economic history Includes contributions from established and rising international scholars Features illustrations of families, children, slaves, and ritual life, along with maps and diagrams of sites and dwellings Honorable Mention for 2011 Single Volume Reference/Humanities & Social Sciences PROSE award granted by the Association of American Publishers

Science Cultivating Practice

A History of Agricultural Science in the Netherlands and its Colonies, 1863–1986

Author: H. Maat

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401729549

Category: History

Page: 250

View: 9730

Science Cultivating Practice is an institutional history of agricultural science in the Netherlands and its overseas territories. The focus of this study is the variety of views about a proper relationship between science and (agricultural) practice. Such views and plans materialised in the overall organisation of research and education. Moreover, the book provides case studies of genetics and plant breeding in the Netherlands, colonial rice breeding, and agricultural statistics. Ideas affected the organisation as much as the other way round. The net result was an institutional development in which the values of academic science were rated higher than the values of practice. This book is a distinctive piece of work as it treats the dynamics of science in a European as well as in a colonial context. These different ecological and social environments lead to other forms of knowledge and experimentation as well as other ways of organising science.