This textbook in point set topology is aimed at an upper-undergraduate audience. Its gentle pace will be useful to students who are still learning to write proofs. Prerequisites include calculus and at least one semester of analysis, where the student has been properly exposed to the ideas of basic set theory such as subsets, unions, intersections, and functions, as well as convergence and other topological notions in the real line. Appendices are included to bridge the gap between this new material and material found in an analysis course. Metric spaces are one of the more prevalent topological spaces used in other areas and are therefore introduced in the first chapter and emphasized throughout the text. This also conforms to the approach of the book to start with the particular and work toward the more general. Chapter 2 defines and develops abstract topological spaces, with metric spaces as the source of inspiration, and with a focus on Hausdorff spaces. The final chapter concentrates on continuous real-valued functions, culminating in a development of paracompact spaces.
At the present time, the average undergraduate mathematics major finds mathematics heavily compartmentalized. After the calculus, he takes a course in analysis and a course in algebra. Depending upon his interests (or those of his department), he takes courses in special topics. Ifhe is exposed to topology, it is usually straightforward point set topology; if he is exposed to geom etry, it is usually classical differential geometry. The exciting revelations that there is some unity in mathematics, that fields overlap, that techniques of one field have applications in another, are denied the undergraduate. He must wait until he is well into graduate work to see interconnections, presumably because earlier he doesn't know enough. These notes are an attempt to break up this compartmentalization, at least in topology-geometry. What the student has learned in algebra and advanced calculus are used to prove some fairly deep results relating geometry, topol ogy, and group theory. (De Rham's theorem, the Gauss-Bonnet theorem for surfaces, the functorial relation of fundamental group to covering space, and surfaces of constant curvature as homogeneous spaces are the most note worthy examples.) In the first two chapters the bare essentials of elementary point set topology are set forth with some hint ofthe subject's application to functional analysis.
Students must prove all of the theorems in this undergraduate-level text, which focuses on point-set topology and emphasizes continuity. The final chapter explores homotopy and the fundamental group. 1975 edition.
" . . . that famous pedagogical method whereby one begins with the general and proceeds to the particular only after the student is too confused to understand even that anymore. " Michael Spivak This text was written as an antidote to topology courses such as Spivak It is meant to provide the student with an experience in geomet describes. ric topology. Traditionally, the only topology an undergraduate might see is point-set topology at a fairly abstract level. The next course the average stu dent would take would be a graduate course in algebraic topology, and such courses are commonly very homological in nature, providing quick access to current research, but not developing any intuition or geometric sense. I have tried in this text to provide the undergraduate with a pragmatic introduction to the field, including a sampling from point-set, geometric, and algebraic topology, and trying not to include anything that the student cannot immediately experience. The exercises are to be considered as an in tegral part of the text and, ideally, should be addressed when they are met, rather than at the end of a block of material. Many of them are quite easy and are intended to give the student practice working with the definitions and digesting the current topic before proceeding. The appendix provides a brief survey of the group theory needed.
Aus den Rezensionen: "Was das Buch vor allem auszeichnet, ist die unkonventionelle Darstellungsweise. Hier wird Mathematik nicht im trockenen Definition-Satz-Beweis-Stil geboten, sondern sie wird dem Leser pointiert und mit viel Humor schmackhaft gemacht. In ungewöhnlich fesselnder Sprache geschrieben, ist die Lektüre dieses Buches auch ein belletristisches Vergnügen. Fast 200 sehr instruktive und schöne Zeichnungen unterstützen das Verständnis, motivieren die behandelten Aussagen, modellieren die tragenden Beweisideen heraus. Ungewöhnlich ist auch das Register, das unter jedem Stichwort eine Kurzdefinition enthält und somit umständliches Nachschlagen erspart". Wiss. Zeitschrift der TU Dresden Jetzt in der siebenten, durchgesehenen Auflage!
gentle introduction to the subject, leading the reader to understand the notion of what is important in topology with regard to geometry. Divided into three sections - The line and the plane, Metric spaces and Topological spaces -, the book eases the move into higher levels of abstraction. Students are thereby informally assisted in learning new ideas while remaining on familiar territory. The authors do not assume previous knowledge of axiomatic approach or set theory. Similarly, they have restricted the mathematical vocabulary in the book so as to avoid overwhelming the reader, and the concept of convergence is employed to allow students to focus on a central theme while moving to a natural understanding of the notion of topology. The pace of the book is relaxed with gradual acceleration: the first nine sections form a balanced course in metric spaces for undergraduates while also containing ample material for a two-semester graduate course. Finally, the book illustrates the many connections between topology and other subjects, such as analysis and set theory, via the inclusion of "Extras" at the end of each chapter presenting a brief foray outside topology.
Designed for juniors and seniors, this one-semester laboratory manual is based on mathematical statistics. This new edition provides a wide range of topics for investigation. Author George Cox begins with exercises covering library research, designing an ecological study, and other introductory concepts. He then proceeds to an examination of specific types of measurement and an analysis of various aspects of ecology. Many of these laboratories are tied to current, commercially-available computer programs and software packages.
How many dimensions does our universe require for a comprehensive physical description? In 1905, Poincare argued philosophically about the necessity of the three familiar dimensions, while recent research is based on 11 dimensions or even 23 dimensions. The notion of dimension itself presented a basic problem to the pioneers of topology. Cantor asked if dimension was a topological feature of Euclidean space. To answer this question, some important topological ideas were introduced by Brouwer, giving shape to a subject whose development dominated the twentieth century. The basic notions in topology are varied and a comprehensive grounding in point-set topology, the definition and use of the fundamental group, and the beginnings of homology theory requires considerable time.The goal of this book is a focused introduction through these classical topics, aiming throughout at the classical result of the Invariance of Dimension. This text is based on the author's course given at Vassar College and is intended for advanced undergraduate students. It is suitable for a semester-long course on topology for students who have studied real analysis and linear algebra. It is also a good choice for a capstone course, senior seminar, or independent study.
Aus den Besprechungen: "Unter den zahlreichen Einführungen in die Wahrscheinlichkeitsrechnung bildet dieses Buch eine erfreuliche Ausnahme. Der Stil einer lebendigen Vorlesung ist über Niederschrift und Übersetzung hinweg erhalten geblieben. In jedes Kapitel wird sehr anschaulich eingeführt. Sinn und Nützlichkeit der mathematischen Formulierungen werden den Lesern nahegebracht. Die wichtigsten Zusammenhänge sind als mathematische Sätze klar formuliert." #FREQUENZ#1
Topology continues to be a topic of prime importance in contemporary mathematics, but until the publication of this book there were few if any introductions to topology for undergraduates. This book remedied that need by offering a carefully thought-out, graduated approach to point set topology at the undergraduate level. To make the book as accessible as possible, the author approaches topology from a geometric and axiomatic standpoint; geometric, because most students come to the subject with a good deal of geometry behind them, enabling them to use their geometric intuition; axiomatic, because it parallels the student's experience with modern algebra, and keeps the book in harmony with current trends in mathematics. After a discussion of such preliminary topics as the algebra of sets, Euler-Venn diagrams and infinite sets, the author takes up basic definitions and theorems regarding topological spaces (Chapter 1). The second chapter deals with continuous functions (mappings) and homeomorphisms, followed by two chapters on special types of topological spaces (varieties of compactness and varieties of connectedness). Chapter 5 covers metric spaces. Since basic point set topology serves as a foundation not only for functional analysis but also for more advanced work in point set topology and algebraic topology, the author has included topics aimed at students with interests other than analysis. Moreover, Dr. Baum has supplied quite detailed proofs in the beginning to help students approaching this type of axiomatic mathematics for the first time. Similarly, in the first part of the book problems are elementary, but they become progressively more difficult toward the end of the book. References have been supplied to suggest further reading to the interested student.
An excellent undergraduate text examines sets and structures, limit and continuity in En, measure and integration, differentiable mappings, sequences and series, applications of improper integrals, more. Problems with tips and solutions for some.
An Introduction to the Point-set and Algebraic Areas
Author: Donald W. Kahn
Publisher: Courier Corporation
Comprehensive coverage of elementary general topology as well as algebraic topology, specifically 2-manifolds, covering spaces and fundamental groups. Problems, with selected solutions. Bibliography. 1975 edition.
This book is a course in general topology, intended for students in the first year of the second cycle (in other words, students in their third univer sity year). The course was taught during the first semester of the 1979-80 academic year (three hours a week of lecture, four hours a week of guided work). Topology is the study of the notions of limit and continuity and thus is, in principle, very ancient. However, we shall limit ourselves to the origins of the theory since the nineteenth century. One of the sources of topology is the effort to clarify the theory of real-valued functions of a real variable: uniform continuity, uniform convergence, equicontinuity, Bolzano-Weierstrass theorem (this work is historically inseparable from the attempts to define with precision what the real numbers are). Cauchy was one of the pioneers in this direction, but the errors that slip into his work prove how hard it was to isolate the right concepts. Cantor came along a bit later; his researches into trigonometric series led him to study in detail sets of points of R (whence the concepts of open set and closed set in R, which in his work are intermingled with much subtler concepts). The foregoing alone does not justify the very general framework in which this course is set. The fact is that the concepts mentioned above have shown themselves to be useful for objects other than the real numbers.
This book is meant as a text for a first-year graduate course in analysis. In a sense, it covers the same topics as elementary calculus but treats them in a manner suitable for people who will be using it in further mathematical investigations. The organization avoids long chains of logical interdependence, so that chapters are mostly independent. This allows a course to omit material from some chapters without compromising the exposition of material from later chapters.
In addition to serving as an introduction to the basics of point-set topology, this text bridges the gap between the elementary calculus sequence and higher-level mathematics courses. The versatile, original approach focuses on learning to read and write proofs rather than covering advanced topics. Based on lecture notes that were developed over many years at The University of Seattle, the treatment is geared toward undergraduate math majors and suitable for a variety of introductory courses. Starting with elementary concepts in logic and basic techniques of proof writing, the text defines topological and metric spaces and surveys continuity and homeomorphism. Additional subjects include product spaces, connectedness, and compactness. The final chapter illustrates topology's use in other branches of mathematics with proofs of the fundamental theorem of algebra and of Picard's existence theorem for differential equations. "This is a back-to-basics introductory text in point-set topology that can double as a transition to proofs course. The writing is very clear, not too concise or too wordy. Each section of the book ends with a large number of exercises. The optional first chapter covers set theory and proof methods; if the students already know this material you can start with Chapter 2 to present a straight topology course, otherwise the book can be used as an introduction to proofs course also." — Mathematical Association of America
This textbook offers an accessible, modern introduction at undergraduate level to an area known variously as general topology, point-set topology or analytic topology with a particular focus on helping students to build theory for themselves. It is the result of several years of the authors' combined university teaching experience stimulated by sustained interest in advanced mathematical thinking and learning, alongside established research careers in analytic topology. Point-set topology is a discipline that needs relatively little background knowledge, but sufficient determination to grasp ideas precisely and to argue with straight and careful logic. Research and long experience in undergraduate mathematics education suggests that an optimal way to learn such a subject is to teach it to yourself, pro-actively, by guided reading of brief skeleton notes and by doing your own spadework to fill in the details and to flesh out the examples. This text will facilitate such an approach for those learners who opt to do it this way and for those instructors who would like to encourage this so-called 'Moore approach', even for a modest segment of the teaching term or for part of the class. In reality, most students simply do not have the combination of time, background and motivation needed to implement such a plan fully. The accessibility, flexibility and completeness of this text enable it to be used equally effectively for more conventional instructor-led courses. Critically, it furnishes a rich variety of exercises and examples, many of which have specimen solutions, through which to gain in confidence and competence.
Based on a course given to talented high-school students at Ohio University in 1988, this book is essentially an advanced undergraduate textbook about the mathematics of fractal geometry. It nicely bridges the gap between traditional books on topology/analysis and more specialized treatises on fractal geometry. The book treats such topics as metric spaces, measure theory, dimension theory, and even some algebraic topology. It takes into account developments in the subject matter since 1990. Sections are clear and focused. The book contains plenty of examples, exercises, and good illustrations of fractals, including 16 color plates.