A Biologist's Guide to Mathematical Modeling in Ecology and Evolution

Author: Sarah P. Otto,Troy Day

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400840910

Category: Science

Page: 744

View: 3794

Thirty years ago, biologists could get by with a rudimentary grasp of mathematics and modeling. Not so today. In seeking to answer fundamental questions about how biological systems function and change over time, the modern biologist is as likely to rely on sophisticated mathematical and computer-based models as traditional fieldwork. In this book, Sarah Otto and Troy Day provide biology students with the tools necessary to both interpret models and to build their own. The book starts at an elementary level of mathematical modeling, assuming that the reader has had high school mathematics and first-year calculus. Otto and Day then gradually build in depth and complexity, from classic models in ecology and evolution to more intricate class-structured and probabilistic models. The authors provide primers with instructive exercises to introduce readers to the more advanced subjects of linear algebra and probability theory. Through examples, they describe how models have been used to understand such topics as the spread of HIV, chaos, the age structure of a country, speciation, and extinction. Ecologists and evolutionary biologists today need enough mathematical training to be able to assess the power and limits of biological models and to develop theories and models themselves. This innovative book will be an indispensable guide to the world of mathematical models for the next generation of biologists. A how-to guide for developing new mathematical models in biology Provides step-by-step recipes for constructing and analyzing models Interesting biological applications Explores classical models in ecology and evolution Questions at the end of every chapter Primers cover important mathematical topics Exercises with answers Appendixes summarize useful rules Labs and advanced material available


Author: Jerzy A. Filar,Jacek B Krawczyk

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 1848262442

Category: Mathematical models

Page: 398

View: 4489

Mathematical Models is a component of Encyclopedia of Mathematical Sciences in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Mathematical Models discusses matters of great relevance to our world such as: Basic Principles of Mathematical Modeling; Mathematical Models in Water Sciences; Mathematical Models in Energy Sciences; Mathematical Models of Climate and Global Change; Infiltration and Ponding; Mathematical Models of Biology; Mathematical Models in Medicine and Public Health; Mathematical Models of Society and Development. These three volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Ecology - Volume II

Author: Antonio Bodini ,Stefan Klotz

Publisher: EOLSS Publications

ISBN: 1848262914


Page: 428

View: 9279

Ecology is a component of Encyclopedia of Environmental and Ecological Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. Ecology is the study of the interrelationships between living organisms and their environment. The term "ecology" was introduced by Ernst Haeckel, at the end of the nineteenth century. Since that time spectacular advances have been made. Much has been learned about the relationship between organisms and environmental factors, and about the processes that regulate the abundance and distribution of species. The Theme on Ecology with contributions from distinguished experts in the field discusses the Science of Ecology for a Sustainable World. The two volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.

Kompendium Systembiologie

Mathematische Modellierung und Modellanalyse

Author: Andreas Kremling

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3834886076

Category: Science

Page: 300

View: 1297

Das Buch beschreibt die Grundlagen der mathematischen Modellierung zellulärer Systeme. Nach einer Klassifikation von Modellen wird schwerpunktmäßig auf deterministische Modelle eingegangen und für alle relevanten zellulären Prozesse entsprechende Gleichungen angegeben. Anschließend werden eine Reihe von Verfahren zur Modellanalyse vorgestellt. Etwas kürzer werden Verfahren zum Reverse Engineering und zur Analyse von Netzwerkgraphen abgehandelt. Am Ende werden noch Verfahren der Parameteridentifikation besprochen.

Mathematical Methods in Biology

Author: J. David Logan,William Wolesensky

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0470525878

Category: Mathematics

Page: 417

View: 9096

A one–of–a–kind guide to using deterministic and probabilistic methods for solving problems in the biological sciences Highlighting the growing relevance of quantitative techniques in scientific research, Mathematical Methods in Biology provides an accessible presentation of the broad range of important mathematical methods for solving problems in the biological sciences. The book reveals the growing connections between mathematics and biology through clear explanations and specific, interesting problems from areas such as population dynamics, foraging theory, and life history theory. The authors begin with an introduction and review of mathematical tools that are employed in subsequent chapters, including biological modeling, calculus, differential equations, dimensionless variables, and descriptive statistics. The following chapters examine standard discrete and continuous models using matrix algebra as well as difference and differential equations. Finally, the book outlines probability, statistics, and stochastic methods as well as material on bootstrapping and stochastic differential equations, which is a unique approach that is not offered in other literature on the topic. In order to demonstrate the application of mathematical methods to the biological sciences, the authors provide focused examples from the field of theoretical ecology, which serve as an accessible context for study while also demonstrating mathematical skills that are applicable to many other areas in the life sciences. The book′s algorithms are illustrated using MATLAB®, but can also be replicated using other software packages, including R, Mathematica®, and Maple; however, the text does not require any single computer algebra package. Each chapter contains numerous exercises and problems that range in difficulty, from the basic to more challenging, to assist readers with building their problem–solving skills. Selected solutions are included at the back of the book, and a related Web site features supplemental material for further study. Extensively class–tested to ensure an easy–to–follow format, Mathematical Methods in Biology is an excellent book for mathematics and biology courses at the upper–undergraduate and graduate levels. It also serves as a valuable reference for researchers and professionals working in the fields of biology, ecology, and biomathematics.

Modeling and Simulation

Author: Hartmut Bossel

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3663108228

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 484

View: 2111

This book is the the English Language Version of the very successful German textbook, "Modellbildung und Simulation". It provides a self-contained and complete guide to the methods and mathematical background of modeling and simulation software of dynamic systems. Furthermore, an appropriate simulation software and a collection of dynamic system models (on the accompanying disk) are highlights of the book/software-Package.Dies ist die englischsprachige Ausgabe des sehr erfolgreichen Lehrbuches "Modellbildung und Simulation". Geboten wird eine vollständige Einführung in die Methoden der Simulation dynamischer Systeme, wobei auch der notwendige mathematische Hintergrund vermittelt wird. Außerdem ist eine Simulationssoftware Bestandteil des Werkes; auf der beiliegenden Diskette befinden sich ferner 50 Beispielsysteme ("Systemzoo"), die zur spielerischen Einübung der verwendeten Verfahren hilfreich sind.


Author: Michael Begon,Robert W. Howarth,Colin R. Townsend

Publisher: Springer-Verlag

ISBN: 3662499061

Category: Science

Page: 599

View: 8350

Dieses Ökologie-Lehrbuch führt in leicht verständlicher Weise in die Grundlagen – von den theoretischen Fundamenten bis zu Ihren praktischen Anwendungen - ein. Durchgehend farbige Abbildungen, einfache didaktische Elemente und eine Fülle an Beispielen machen dieses Buch zu einem idealen Einstieg in die Ökologie für Studierende aller Studienabschnitte. Neu in der 3. Auflage sind zusätzliche Erläuterungen in Form von Sprechblasen in den Abbildungen und die neue Gliederung des Textes in 5 Abschnitte. Ökosystem und Biogeochemie werden ausführlicher behandelt und hunderte neuer Studien sowohl für die grundlegenden als auch für die angewandten Aspekte der Ökologie werden einbezogen.

Official Meeting Program

Author: Ecological Society of America. Meeting

Publisher: N.A


Category: Ecology

Page: N.A

View: 444

Extended Heredity

A New Understanding of Inheritance and Evolution

Author: Russell Bonduriansky,Troy Day

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400890152

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 6359

How genes are not the only basis of heredity—and what this means for evolution, human life, and disease For much of the twentieth century it was assumed that genes alone mediate the transmission of biological information across generations and provide the raw material for natural selection. In Extended Heredity, leading evolutionary biologists Russell Bonduriansky and Troy Day challenge this premise. Drawing on the latest research, they demonstrate that what happens during our lifetimes--and even our grandparents' and great-grandparents' lifetimes—can influence the features of our descendants. On the basis of these discoveries, Bonduriansky and Day develop an extended concept of heredity that upends ideas about how traits can and cannot be transmitted across generations. By examining the history of the gene-centered view in modern biology and reassessing fundamental tenets of evolutionary theory, Bonduriansky and Day show that nongenetic inheritance—involving epigenetic, environmental, behavioral, and cultural factors—could play an important role in evolution. The discovery of nongenetic inheritance therefore has major implications for key questions in evolutionary biology, as well as human health. Extended Heredity reappraises long-held ideas and opens the door to a new understanding of inheritance and evolution.

Der erweiterte Phänotyp

Der lange Arm der Gene

Author: Richard Dawkins

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783662559673

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 5102

Der erweiterte Phänotyp - ein Klassiker der Evolutionsbiologie Richard Dawkins betrachtet dieses 1982 erschienene, 1999 überarbeitete und ergänzte Buch als seinen Hauptbeitrag zur Evolutionsbiologie und als Nachfolgewerk seines Bestsellers Das egoistische Gen. Für die deutschsprachige Übersetzung hat Richard Dawkins ein neues Vorwort verfasst. Dawkins erweitert in diesem Buch den Begriff des Phänotyps (als Summe aller Merkmale eines Individuums) auf die Auswirkungen der Gene dieses Individuums auf die Umwelt und auf andere Lebewesen. Beispiele sind die durch den Fortpflanzungstrieb des Bibers entstehenden Bauten, die drastische Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt haben können, oder das Gen eines Parasiten, welches das Verhalten seines Wirtes zum Nutzen des Parasiten (Saitenwurm) verändert. Dawkins betont mit diesem Ansatz die genzentrierte Sicht des Lebens. Im letzten Kapitel des Buches unternimmt er den Versuch, den Organismus neu zu definieren. Ich behaupte, dass die meisten Wissenschaftler, die meisten Autoren ein Werk haben, von dem sie sagen würden: Egal, ob Sie noch nie etwas von mir gelesen haben, lesen Sie wenigstens dies! Richard Dawkins

Technology, Innovations and Growth

Author: J. K. Sengupta

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 0230295258

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 195

View: 2845

This book provides detailed empirical analysis of countries in Asia to examine various dynamic models that incorporate the impact of technology and innovations on the industry evolution and overall economic growth.

Die Evolution der Kooperation

Aus dem Amerikanischen übersetzt und mit einem Nachwort von Werner Raub und Thomas Voss

Author: Robert Axelrod

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 3486851748

Category: Philosophy

Page: 245

View: 5675

Wie ist Kooperation möglich in einer Welt von Egoisten, in der es keine zentrale Autorität gibt? Axelrod entwickelt aus der Spieltheorie - auf der Basis des "Gefangenendilemmas" - eine verblüffende Lösung. Nicht die raffinierteste, auch nicht die aggressivste, nicht die sanfteste Strategie sichert langfristig Erfolg, sondern die grundsätzlich wohlwollende, aber stets vergeltungsbereite: TIT FOR TAT, "wie Du mir, so ich Dir". Axelrod schließt daraus, dass in der globalen arbeitsteiligen Wirtschaftsweise geradezu ein innerer Zwang zur Kooperation besteht. Gewinnbringende Kooperationen sind für Unternehmen nützlicher als blinder Wettbewerb.

The Founders of Evolutionary Genetics

A Centenary Reappraisal

Author: S. Sarkar

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9401128561

Category: Science

Page: 306

View: 7553

genetics. " It is simply the appropriation of that term, very likely with insufficient knowledge and respect for its past usage. For that, the Editor alone is responsible and requests tolerance. He has, as far as he can tell, no intention or desire to use it for any historiographical purposes other than that just mentioned. Even more important, the decision to consider Muller together with Fisher, Haldane and Wright is also not original. Crow (1984) has already done so, arguing persua sively that Muller was "keenly interested in evolution and made sub stantial contributions to the development of the neo-Darwinian view. " Crow's reasons for considering these four figures together and the reasons discussed above are complementary. This book continues a historiographical choice he initiated; others will have to judge whether it is appropriate. The foregoing considerations were intended to show why Fisher, Haldane, Muller and Wright should be considered together in the history of theoretical evolutionary genetics. I By a welcome stroke of luck, from the point of view of the Editor, all four of these figures were born almost together, between 1889 and 1892, and almost exactly a century ago. It therefore seemed appropriate to use their birth cente naries to consider their work together. A conference was held at Boston University, on March 6, 1990, under the auspices of the Boston Center for the Philosophy and History of Science, to discuss their work. This book has emerged mainly from that conference.

Fifty Years of Invasion Ecology

The Legacy of Charles Elton

Author: David M. Richardson

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444330004

Category: Science

Page: 456

View: 817

Invasion ecology is the study of the causes and consequences of the introduction of organisms to areas outside their native range. Interest in this field has exploded in the past few decades. Explaining why and how organisms are moved around the world, how and why some become established and invade, and how best to manage invasive species in the face of global change are all crucial issues that interest biogeographers, ecologists and environmental managers in all parts of the world. This book brings together the insights of more than 50 authors to examine the origins, foundations, current dimensions and potential trajectories of invasion ecology. It revisits key tenets of the foundations of invasion ecology, including contributions of pioneering naturalists of the 19th century, including Charles Darwin and British ecologist Charles Elton, whose 1958 monograph on invasive species is widely acknowledged as having focussed scientific attention on biological invasions.

Biocalculus: Calculus for Life Sciences

Author: James Stewart,Troy Day

Publisher: Cengage Learning

ISBN: 1133109632

Category: Mathematics

Page: 900

View: 6604

The chief goal in this textbook is to show students how calculus relates to biology, with a style that maintains rigor without being overly formal. The text motivates and illustrates the topics of calculus with examples drawn from many areas of biology, including genetics, biomechanics, medicine, pharmacology, physiology, ecology, epidemiology, and evolution, to name a few. Particular attention has been paid to ensuring that all applications of the mathematics are genuine, and references to the primary biological literature for many of these has been provided so that students and instructors can explore the applications in greater depth. Although the focus is on the interface between mathematics and the life sciences, the logical structure of the book is motivated by the mathematical material. Students will come away from a course based on this book with a sound knowledge of mathematics and an understanding of the importance of mathematical arguments. Equally important, they will also come away with a clear understanding of how these mathematical concepts and techniques are central in the life sciences. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.